Cáncer de vesícula biliar, una visión actual

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.30944/20117582.891

Palabras clave:

cáncer, vesícula biliar, diagnóstico, cálculos, pólipos, factores de riesgo, tratamiento, litiasis

Resumen

Introducción. El diagnóstico de cáncer de vesícula biliar se realiza generalmente de forma incidental durante el estudio de las piezas quirúrgicas o cuando la enfermedad está avanzada y se expresa por su diseminación. Muy pocas veces se diagnostica de forma preoperatoria. Corresponde a la neoplasia más común de las vías biliares y su incidencia varía de acuerdo a la región geográfica. La región andina en Latinoamérica presenta una de las mayores incidencias a nivel mundial.

Métodos. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, para presentar una información actualizada en lo referente a los factores de riesgo (incluyendo las alteraciones genéticas y moleculares), al diagnóstico y al tratamiento de esta patología. Basados en los datos actuales, presentamos algunas recomendaciones dirigidas al diagnóstico temprano, que permita un manejo más adecuado de nuestros pacientes.

Resultados. Se han implicado nuevos factores de riesgo relacionados con la etiología del cáncer de vesícula biliar, como la obesidad, factores genéticos y moleculares. A pesar de la disponibilidad de los métodos diagnósticos imagenológicos, no ha ocurrido una importante variación porcentual en cuanto al estadio al momento del diagnóstico.

Conclusiones. El manejo quirúrgico del cáncer de vesícula biliar está indicado en los estadios más tempranos de la enfermedad y es importante evaluar las opciones terapéuticas en pacientes con enfermedad avanzada. Se considera de suma importancia el estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza quirúrgica y la revisión del informe por parte del cirujano

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Biografía del autor/a

Robin Germán Prieto-Ortiz, Hospital Central de la Policía, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.

Médico, especialista en Cirugía general y en Gastroenterología, Editor asociado, Revista Colombiana de Cirugía. 

Bernardo Alfonso Borráez-Segura, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Colombia.

Médico, especialista en Cirugía general, especialista en Cirugía gastrointestinal, profesor.

Jhon Edison Prieto-Ortiz, Centro de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CEHYD), Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.

Médico, especialista en Gastroenterología, especialista en Hepatología.

Óscar A. Guevara-Cruz, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.

Médico, magister en Epidemiología clínica, especialista en Cirugía general y en Cirugía hepatobiliar, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología; Profesor titular.

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2022-02-04

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Prieto-Ortiz, R. G.; Borráez-Segura, B. A.; Prieto-Ortiz, J. E.; Guevara-Cruz, Óscar A. Cáncer De vesícula Biliar, Una visión Actual. Rev Colomb Cir 2022, 37, 280-297.

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